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Minerals and other things

MINERALS

1. Minerals are natural materials.

They can be part of rocks, animal bones or shells.

They are on the Earth's surface and under the ground.

Each mineral has got different shape, colour, they are shiny or dull and hard or soft.

2. Minerals are useful.

We can use minerals to build buildings, like gypsum, or to make jewellery, like diamonds.


ROCKS ARE MATERIALS

1. Rocks are materials made up of minerals.

We can obtain mineralsunder the ground or on the surface.

2. Rocks are useful.

- We can use rocks for building, like slate, marble and granite.

- We can use rocks for fuel, like coal.


SOIL AND UNDERGROUND WATER

1. Types of soil.

The ground is made up of rocks, sand, soil, air, water and humus.

Humus is the reamains of living things like leaves.

a. Fertile ground has a lot of water, air and humus. It is good for plants.

b. Poor ground has little water, air and humus. Only resistant plants can grow in poor ground, like olives trees.

c. Very poor ground is made up of rocks, like a desert. Only very few plants can grow there.

2. There are three main layers:

- The top layer is made up of sand, soil and humus.

- The middle layer is made up of sand, soil and rocks.

- The bottom layer is made up of bigger rocks.


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